About 40 million mattresses and box springs are sold in the United States each year. Whether they are recycled or disposed in municipal waste, used mattresses represent a significant management cost for many local governments and institutions, particularly when mattresses are dumped illegally. When disassembled, up to 95 percent of mattress components—steel, cotton, and foam—are recyclable, preventing valuable materials from becoming waste. In addition, recycling keeps mattresses out of landfills and waste combustion facilities, where they pose significant operational challenges owing to their bulky mass and metal box springs, which damage equipment. However, only a small percentage of mattresses is recycled annually.